Happy 2,777th Birthday Roma

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Apr 21, 2024

The Eternal City— timeless yet ever-vibrant—commemorates its mythical founding each April 21st marked by elaborate parades, theatrical performances and historical re-enactments showcasing the rituals of ancient Rome. Better known, when in Rome, as Natale di Roma, these special festivities (a 3-day affair) speak to the city’s multi-millennia legacy as a cradle of Western civilization.

Today’s “Postcards” serves as an homage to the singular city of seven hills once known as Caput Mundi—Latin for “head of the world.”

Few civilizations have left as indelible a mark as that of ancient Rome. The streets of the city are paved with history and myth that still invite to take a journey back in time to a civilization whose scale and ambition seem almost superhuman: the imposing grandeur of the Colosseum; aqueducts that snake like arteries; and roads that extend like a sophisticated nervous system, all emanating from Roma.

Roman architecture is an eternal wonder. The Pantheon, more than any other structure, transcends its materials to make a statement both of grandeur and grace. It speaks to a civilization whose combined practicality and design genius redefined space and defied time.

The Rome of Christendom attests to another great history and awe-inspiring spiritual venture. At its center is St Peter’s Basilica, with its double colonnade and an elliptical piazza in front and bordered by palaces and gardens. It is the largest ecclesiastical structure in the world, the fruit of the combined genius of Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo and Bernini

In the seventeenth century, Rome became the ultimate testament to Catholic majesty and triumph as expressed in all the arts. Baroque architects, artists, and urban planners so magnified and invigorated the classical and ecclesiastical traditions of the city that it became for centuries afterward the acknowledged capital of the European art world—not only a magnet for tourists and artists but also a font of inspiration throughout the Western world.

Today Rome’s particular vibrance derives from how the city’s multi-layered illustrious past and fashionable present so harmoniously coexist in its fascinating and varied neighborhoods that attract young and old the world over.

From the Centro Storico areas such as Campo Marzio to Prati and Monti, and from the Trastevere, now one of Rome’s most beautiful and beloved neighborhoods, to the Testaccio, for diehard foodies, Rome hums with a unique vivacity.

Off the tourist radar is the fantastical Art Nouveau Coppedè District located just north of the city center. Its fountains and villas were designed solely by Gino Coppedè who drew inspiration from ancient Greek, Baroque, Medieval, neoclassical, and Gothic styles—a milestone of eclecticism—well worth an afternoon of exploration.

For the past three decades Natale di Roma has been celebrated by the Gruppo Storico Romano, a historical dramatic society that re-enacts battles, gladiator fights, costumed processions, Roman rituals and displays of ancient theater and dance. The theme of this year’s Natale di Roma festival is Regina Viarum, a reference to the Appian Way—the “queen of roads”— for which Italy is currently seeking UNESCO World Heritage status.

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A Pilgrim’s Path to Rome

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Apr 9, 2023

It seemed fitting for today’s “Postcards” to explore one of the oldest and most popular pilgrim routes to originate in the Middle Ages, connecting Canterbury to the Eternal City. Known as the Via Francigena, it transits the North and South of Europe passing through France, the land of the Franks, hence its name.  I like to think of it as the Medieval Route 66!

At various times, I have walked portions of this pilgrim route that passes through the heart of Italy and reveals a trove of artistic, cultural and natural treasures. It is a different pace of traveling—and a wonderful way to rediscover and appreciate the value of slowness, deliberation and simplicity.

We begin today south of Lucca in the charming village of San Miniato al Tedesco with its scenic panoramas.

No worries about getting lost, the route is well marked with various sorts of signage!

Our next town is San Gimignano, best known for its iconic skyline of tower houses owned by the wealthy families who errected them as symbols of their wealth and power. Although only 14 have survived, San Gimignano has retained its feudal atmosphere and appearance. The town also has several masterpieces of 14th- and 15th-century Italian art.

Here are some highlights.

This is an unusual secular fresco of a married couple sharing a warm bath in an antechamber of the Sala Dante in the Town Hall, now a civic museum.

Here are some frescoes from the city’s cathedral located next door— scenes from the passion and a fresco depicting the Martyrdom of Saint Sabastian.

The town is tiny but has some marvelous restaurants with breathtaking views of vineyards growing Vernaccia di San Gimignano … with its characteristic bright, crisp and citrusy flavor.

As we walk further south, the charming walled castle of Monteriggione elegantly dominates the surrounding landscape. The castle was built by the Sienese between 1213 and 1219 for defensive purposes, serving as a lookout for any approaching armies.

Which brings us to Siena, not only home of the famous Palio horse race, but also some of Italy’s most dazzling artistic treasures. The Republic of Siena existed for over 400 years, from 1125 to 1555. Helped by its location along the Francigena it was one of the major economic powers of the Middle Ages and one of the most important commercial, financial and artistic centers in all of Europe, initially eclipsing Florence. A combination of economic decline, sparked by the Black Death, and political instability led to its annexation by rival Florence.

Here is the Duomo.

Its zebra-striped columns accentuate the sense of height grandeur .

To the left of the entrance of the cathedral you will see a separate entrance to the Piccolomini Library. Piccolomini was a noble Sienese family that produced two popes. The library was built by Cardinal Francesco Tedeschini Piccolomini, archbishop of Siena (later Pope Pius III), around 1492 to honor the memory of uncle Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pope Pius II) and to preserve the rare books and illuminated manuscripts that the pope and humanist had collected.

These eye-candy frescoes and ceiling were painted with a wealth of enameled colors, accentuated by golden pastille inserts, by Pinturicchio and his workshop (1503-1508), depicting ten episodes relating to life and pontificate of Pius II.

The one the Cathedral’s most extraordinary treasures is its spectacular inlaid marble mosaic floor—described by Giorgio Vasari as “the most beautiful, largest and most magnificent floor that ever was made.” Crafted by about forty artists and artisans between the 14th and 16th centuries, the 56 panels that constitute the floor vary in size and shape and are made mainly with two different techniques: graffito (tiny holes and cutting lines created in the marble and then filled with black stucco and mineral pitch) and marble intarsia (black, white, green, red and blue marble employed in much the same manner as wood inlaying). Most of the year the floors are covered but they can be viewed between mid-August and the end of October.

Housed in the nearby Cathedral Museum—Museo dell’Opera—are works of art created for the cathedral including sculptures by Giovanni Pisano, Donatello and Jacopo della Quercia, and painted masterpieces by Duccio, including his Maestà altarpiece, among other Sienese treasures.

From the Museum, there are great views of the surrounding countryside and the scallop-shaped Piazza del Campo.

The Palazzo Pubblico was the seat of Siena’s government. Nearly every major room contains frescoes, unusual for the time since they were commissioned the city rather than by the Church or by a religious fraternity. They are also unusual in that many depict secular instead of religious subjects

The most famous of the secular frescoes are in the Hall of the Nine (the Republic’s governing body) painted by Ambrogio Lorenzetti and known as The Allegory of Good and Bad Government.

Here are portions from both the “good” and “bad” government frescoes.

Tyranny is personified as a devil with fangs.

Leaving Siena we head to the Italy’s largest inland body of water, Lake Bolsena, a super deep volcanic lake about 10 miles outside of Orvieto.

Orvieto’s magnificent cathedral houses a relic related to a miracle that took place in the town of Bolensa. In 1263 a pilgrim priest, Peter of Prague, stopped in Bolsena and said mass in a small church. When he consecrated the host it began to bleed on the corporal— the small cloth upon which the host and chalice rest during the mass. The appearance of blood was seen as a miracle affirming the doctrine of transubstantiation— that the bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ.  Today the Corporal of Bolsena is preserved at the Orvieto Cathedral.

Approaching Rome, we arrive in the town of Viterbo, another medieval gem. It is best known for being the seat of the papacy for two decades during the 13th century and for hosting the longest papal election (or conclave) in the history of the Catholic Church during this time, lasting nearly three years. The city is also known for its thermal springs that have been celebrated for centuries.

At last we arrive in Rome.  Pilgrims often include visits to Rome’s “other” cathedrals.  Here is Saint Paul Outside the Wall, built on the site where the saint was martyred.

Here are two “postcards” from Santa Maria Maggiore, whose mosaics never cease to astonish me.

Final we approach Saint Peter’s, the pilgrimage route’s ultimate destination, crossing the Ponte Sant’Angelo with its Via Crucis sculpted by Bernini.

And here is Bernini’s immense colonnade in Saint Peter’s Square that receives pilgrims, and all visitors, in what he described as “the welcoming arms of Mother Church.”

As we enter, we see one of the finest works of Baroque sculpture, the Baldacchino di San Pietro—a large Baroque canopy sculpture in bronze that marks the tomb of St. Peter, situated below.

And finally, the Throne of Saint Peter a wooden relic that belonged to the apostle and first pope. The relic is enclosed in a sculpted gilt bronze casing designed by Bernini.

Even today’s secular “pilgrims”—both locals and tourists—cannot help but be moved and transformed by the miraculous sites along the glorious Via Francigena.

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Italia’s La Vita Ciocco!

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Jan 28, 2023

Long before Switzerland was on the “chocolate map,” Italy was the center of the chocolate universe! Today’s Postcards are dedicated to “Le Città del Cioccolato” – Torino, Perugia and Modica.

In 1585, the Turin-based Duke of Savoy married the daughter of Phillip II, the King of Spain. Raw cacao began to arrive in Genoa, Italy from the Spanish colonies in the New World, and nearby Torino’s expertise in chocolate flourished, turning the city into the chocolate capital of Europe. Today the handsome city, with its elegant cafes and confectionary shops, remains synonymous with chocolate, and its residents remain ever-passionate connoisseurs.

There’s chocolate, and then there’s Torino’s gianduiotto chocolate. An ancestor of Nutella, this melt-in-the-mouth confection is made of a rich paste of fine cocoa mixed with the premium hazelnuts from Piedmont’s Langhe region. The name gianduiotto was derived from carnival figure Gianduja, a jolly wine-loving peasant who embodied the epicurean nature of the locals. Gianduiotto is far more than just delicious chocolate, for the character associated with it has become a symbol of Torino and a key part of its identity.

Another Torino innovation is the original hot chocolate conceived there in 1678 and known as the Bicerin – an indulgent combination of hot coffee, cacao and cream. Between visits to elegant chocolate shops and cafés visitors can sample the city’s rich and varied cultural offerings. Highlights include . . .Palazzo Reale, the stunning palace of the House of Savoy, the nearby Chapel of the Holy Shroud and the National Museum of Cinema, housed in the iconic Mole Antonelliana tower. Plus, a BIG surprise . . . second only to the museum in Cairo, the world’s most extensive collection of Egyptian antiquities – the Museo Egizio. And, of course, Torino is the gateway city to the Piedmont region – the land of Barolo and truffles!

Heading south, we arrive in Umbria and the charming medieval city of Perugia, world famous for its Perugina chocolate confections and the beloved Baci. Which came first … the Hershey Kiss or Baci???  (Find out at my February 10th event)

Perugia hosts the world’s largest chocolate festival, a 10-day extravaganza held each October, which takes over the entire historical center of the city. Beyond myriad sampling opportunities (YUM), the festival is replete with life-size chocolate sculptures! And if you haven’t had enough chocolate, you can further immerse yourself by visiting Perugina’s historic museum, Casa Del Cioccolato, its factory, and even attend a hands-on workshop at their Scuola del Cioccolato. You can even in even stay in the city’s one-of-a-kind Chocohotel.

Heading further south, we arrive in one of Sicily’s Baroque jewels – Modica – a city renowned not just for its architecture but its unique “cold pressed chocolate.” The Spanish had conquered Sicily during the period of Spanish exploration to the New World. The Sicilians would adopt the Aztec method for using cacao, which is the style in which Modica’s chocolate is still made today.  Modica, which has been winning awards internationally for over a century, sticks to the very simple recipe of hand-ground cocoa beans and sugar. E basta. That’s it. This allows for the quality and flavor of the cocoa bean itself to shine, with no additives or emulsifiers.

A Mexican stone called the metate is used to grind the cocoa beans which are then mixed with sugar and only gently warmed so the sugar doesn’t melt; this preserves the flavors and the nutrients and antioxidants of the cacao far better than modern processing methods. It also leaves the texture granular and crumbly, so you get that sugar crunch when you bite into it. There are various popular flavors the Sicilians add to their chocolate: pistachios and almonds, cinnamon and cardamom, citrus zest, peperoncino (chile pepper), black and white pepper, and sea salt, mint and jasmine. WOW!

The most famous arbiters of this taste experience are the owners of Antica Dolceria Bonajuto, a tiny chocolate shop tucked into a side alley off of the main drag in Modica. Established in 1880, and it is the oldest chocolate shop in Sicily. But you can find great Modica chocolate in almost any shop in town, as well as in many specialty shops all around the island.


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